Paraphrasing vs. Quoting

By: Natalie Sweet

[00:00:00.00] [00:00:01.10] NATALIE SWEET: Hello, everyone and welcome to today's webinar on paraphrasing versus quoting. This webinar is directly connected to completing milestone three in history 113 and 114. I'm you're learning community facilitator for history 113 and 114, Natalie Sweet. And I'm glad to have you with us today. [00:00:20.92] Last week you submitted milestone two and what milestone two did was set up the trends for your paper.

It helped set the scene so that your reader would understand the events that led up to the event that you're discussing. [00:00:36.03] In milestone three, you're actually going to be looking back on milestone one where you created your thesis statement. In milestone three, you build a case for the claims that you made in your thesis. [00:00:49.75] Remember those three supporting claims? We'll be talking more about those in a moment. So let's revisit milestone one.

[00:01:01.05] Let's remember the sample that I gave to you. And if you have missed milestone one, you can very easily go to my YouTube channel for history 113 and 114 and you will see it. Milestone one is what it's labeled as within the YouTube channel. [00:01:21.39] But to go back, your sample thesis that we created for milestone one that really didn't have to deal with a specific topic in history 113 or 114 was this, we created a thesis statement that said, overall Northern opinion of Mary Lincoln was low during the Civil War due to her Confederate relatives, her spending habits, and her entertainments. [00:01:42.73] We had a central claim and then, we created the three supporting claims that you see below. In milestone three, you will go back to milestone one, pull out your three supporting claims, and then build paragraphs of evidence around each of your supporting claims.

[00:02:03.35] Now how is this done? Well, first of all, you want to make certain that you're using the proper sources. If you've already used the e-materials from Trowbridge a few different times in milestone one and two, you'll probably want to refrain from using that on this section of the paper. [00:02:20.25] In this section of the paper, you really want to work on using at least four of the primary and secondary sources that were provided to you by your instructor with this project. While crafting these sections, you should use at least two of your primary sources and two of your secondary sources. Now you can use those sources however you like in building these paragraphs of evidence. [00:02:47.76] My suggestion to you is to think about ways that with each paragraph, you could pull at least one of your primary sources and one of your secondary sources to support the information that you are providing. [00:03:02.08] So for example, let's look at one of the supporting claims that we made for that these back on milestone one.

Paraphrasing vs. Quoting

One of the sources that we used to come up with these claims, if you remember, we went over a newspaper article that was criticizing Mary Lincoln for her spending habits. [00:03:22.17] Now, to write my second claim that Mary Lincoln made large purchases during the war and that people disliked her spending habits, I might use the words within that newspaper article to give a real time account of how someone reacted to her spending. I might also pull from a secondary source that was given to me, which was a biography of Mary Lincoln by a lady named Jean Baker. [00:03:50.02] Using those, I'll build a paragraph of evidence that shows my reader exactly how Mary Lincoln made these purchases and how people reacted to her purchases, demonstrate that dislike. And I'll do the same approach for each of my supporting claims. [00:04:09.29] With each of my supporting claims, I will show my reader how my claim is so, pulling evidence from my sources to make my point clear. And so that my reader too, will not have a doubt that I am correct in my statements. [00:04:28.05] Now remember, when you're building these claims, if you think back to when we built milestone one and were developing the supporting claims, we talked about how those claims didn't need to be fact-- I mean.

They didn't need to be opinion, they need to be fact. So as a result of that, what you want to do as you look through your sources is pull out facts. What cannot be disputed. [00:04:54.16] Remember, you are making an argument and you need good evidence to back up your argument and to show your reader that you are right. [00:05:04.32] Again, for milestone three, you're going to build a paragraph of proof around each of the three claims in your thesis. Make certain that your evidence is coming from your provided primary and secondary sources. Do not go to outside sources.

This is an analysis paper. And part of what your instructor is grading you on is how well you use those sources to make your argument. And only those sources.

[00:05:31.65] Remember, use at least two primary sources and two secondary sources for this section of your paper. [00:05:42.59] Here are three questions I want you to consider when you're providing evidence to support your claim. When you're making these claims ask yourself, why is it important that my reader understand the information that I'm presenting to them? How does it help my argument? Does it help my argument? Or am I just including this information as filler? [00:06:04.77] Remember, you want to be to the point and provide plentiful evidence that revolves around each of your supporting claims. Remember, too, how does this information fit into the larger thesis? Remember, your larger thesis is to show how Northern opinion of Mary Todd Lincoln was low during the war. [00:06:27.16] You're demonstrating within each of those claims how this was so. So you want to bring each of the supporting claims back around to the larger point that because Mary Lincoln had instances in her life or actions that made her look unfavorable, that that in turn led to overall opinion dipping of her.

[00:06:51.57] And the third point you want to consider, how can you provide examples to illustrate the point that you're trying to make? Again, think back to when we created the thesis statement for milestone one. [00:07:05.45] One of the things that we did was look at a primary source that specifically pulled an instance of where someone was voicing their disapproval of Mary Lincoln. That's a excellent piece of evidence that can't be disputed. That person made that claim.

And by referencing and citing that claim within your paper, you're providing evidence to back up your point. [00:07:33.85] Let's now move on to the second portion of this webinar and really talk about how you will use your evidence within your paper to make these supporting claims and build these paragraphs of evidence. You can utilize your sources in one of two ways. You can paraphrase or you can quote. [00:07:55.66] Now what's the difference between the two? If you are paraphrasing, you're placing your material in your own words and phrasing, while properly giving credit to the original source of the words and the ideas. You shouldn't, however, just change a few words around.

[00:08:12.34] The structure of the statement should be changed. You might even see a difference in cadence as you read it out loud. Basically what you want to do is this, you want to take the general idea that you pulled from the source, but put it in your own words. [00:08:28.35] Now if you paraphrase, you must, just as if you directly quote, include an in text citation if you're doing APA style citations, notes if you're doing Turabian style. That needs to be in place because even if you are sharing information that comes from another source, you need to give credit where credit is due. [00:08:54.00] So make certain that you're properly citing as you go along. And remember, within your e-materials, you can use hashtag #sought to immediately pull up your sources and to have the sources placed in the proper format within your submission. [00:09:12.59] The other option that you can go with is quoting.

Quoting is where you directly pull material word for word from your sources, while properly giving credit to the original source via quotation marks and citations. [00:09:27.48] Now the tricky thing about quoting is that in your paper, you need to make certain that under 20% of the paper includes quoted material or similarities. That means you don't want to rely on quotes overly much. You don't want to have big blocks of quotations.

[00:09:50.27] So how do you know when you should paraphrase and when you should quote? Well, the big thing you want to think about as you're going forward and you're trying to decide whether to paraphrase or quote is this, ultimately, your analysis of the evidence that you will be pulling out and that you present is what makes your argument. [00:10:13.84] In fact, you were being graded on your analysis of these sources. So you don't want to overly quote. Because what quoting does, that kind of takes the pressure off of you. You need to explain why you've included quotes. You need to explain why these quotes are significant to the larger argument. And that means you need to analyze.

[00:10:37.29] One of the things that your instructor is going to do is look to make certain that you have a good understanding of the topic that you're writing about. And the only way that he or she can do that, is if you explain the topic in your own words. But you can also support it with some quoted material. [00:10:56.51] So when to use quotes. Here are my rules for knowing what you should do when you're trying to decide should I paraphrase or quote. So if you're wanting to quote, think about these three things. [00:11:09.03] Is the wording particularly memorable or eye-catching? In other words, has someone made a really significant statement that gets to the heart of their feelings about a matter or a subject? [00:11:26.24] So for example, let's take that example of Mary Todd Lincoln again/ let's think back to that primary source that I originally showed you with milestone one.

In it, the person includes a very pointed and direct line where he says that he doesn't think that it's right during the Civil War for the first lady to be spending money on these extravagant items. And he uses a very choice selection of language. [00:11:58.93] Now if that is just a line in length, you might decide to include that sentence and then explain how those words that you have quoted, speak to the way that people were feeling about Mary Todd Lincoln during the Civil War. So in that instance, sure, quote. [00:12:17.17] If you can put words into paraphrase format, though, and it's really not memorable lines, then consider doing else wise. But if it's memorable, consider quoting. [00:12:31.39] Another instance. Would changing the wording mean that the purpose of the statement would be lost? Sometimes that happens when you're looking at secondary sources.

If that is so, then quote. [00:12:45.62] Avoid large block quotes, however. When you can, only quote material that's a sentence in length.

Remember, your instructor really wants to hear from you with your thoughts and analysis. [00:13:00.56] Another instance where you may decide to quote is are you trying to make a particularly tricky or complex point? Would the exact words of an expert help? And really, when you're writing an analysis paper and you're really having a difficult time putting a statement into your own words or you need authority to back up your own analysis, that can be a great time to give credit to one of the authors of your secondary sources, and say according to historian, and then state their name, and then, maybe provide a sentence of a quote. That's another area where you may consider quoting.

[00:13:47.11] But I cannot emphasize this enough, as you go through, do quote sparingly throughout your paper. Your audience ultimately wants to hear from you, your thoughts on the subject. And not only that, but the thesis statement is your argument. You don't want someone to rely on someone solely making the argument for you. It has to come from you.

[00:14:13.75] If you have any questions after watching this webinar, please be in touch with history 113, 114 learning community. You can access it on the left hand side of your class. Simply click on learning community and it will take you there. There you can participate on threads of discussion, share elements of your work, and get back from me and your fellow students. [00:14:38.60] Again, I was glad to have you with me today.

And be in touch with your questions.

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